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eta [03.07.2022 15:33] (current) – created - external edit
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 +====== ETA ======
 +{{wst>image_cr|ETA|Gebaeude Grenchen|ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse Grenchen}}
 +**ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse** (commonly called **ETA**) is the best-known Swiss [[ebauche movement]] manufacturer. Part of the [[Swatch Group]], ETA traces its lineage to [[1793]], though the name dates only to [[1923]].
 +===== History =====
 +ETA emerged as a holding company for the majority of Swiss watch movement production in the 20th century. As such, it can trace its roots to some of the earliest factories in Switzerland. In [[1793]], [[Benguerel, Isaac|Isaac]] and [[Benguerel, David|David Benguerel]], [[Humbert-Droz, Julien|Julien]] and [[Humbert-Droz, Francois|Francois Humbert-Droz]] founded the first factory for [[ebauche movement]]s, [[FHF|Fabrique d'Horlogerie de Fontainemelon (FHF)]], in [[Fontainemelon]], Canton of [[Neuchâtel]]. [[FHF]] began industrial production of watch [[movement]]s in [[1816]], and this date is another appropriate beginning point for ETA, since FHF was absorbed into the company in [[1982]].
 +The true beginning of ETA is [[1856]], when [[Urs Schild]] and [[Girard, Joseph|Dr. Joseph Girard]] founded an [[ebauche]] factory in [[Grenchen]]. This company would become [[Eterna]], which was split 76 years later to become **ETA**. Also in [[Grenchen]], in [[1896]], [[Adolf Schild]] founds the [[ebauche]] company [[A. Schild]] (AS), where the first cylinder and pin lever movements are produced.
 +The ETA name is first seen in advertisements in January, [[1923]]. Ebauches from the Schild Frères factory in Grenchen had previously been advertised as coming from Eterna but were now listed as "Fabrique d'Ebauches ETA" with at least eight movements offered.
 +On [[December 27]] [[1926]], [[A. Schild AG|A. Schild AG (AS or ASSA)]] and [[Adolphe Michel|Adolphe Michel SA (AMSA)]] of [[Grenchen]] and [[FHF|Fabrique d' Horlogerie de Fontainemelon (FHF)]] of [[Fontainemelon]] agree to join together to form [[Ebauches SA]]. This holding company, registered on [[December 30]] and going into effect on the first day of [[1927]], is intended to bring order to the chaotic watch movement manufacturing industry, and it expands rapidly. Soon, Ebauches SA is the largest producer of watch movement blanks in Switzerland.
 +===== ETA, ASUAG, and Ebauches SA =====
 +In [[1931]], Ebauches SA joins with many other Swiss companies to create [[ASUAG]], a larger holding company. [[Eterna]] joins this conglomerate in [[1932]], but is split in two to match the overall organizational structure of ASUAG 
 +  * **[[Eterna|Eterna SA]]** manufactures whole watches
 +  * **ETA SA Fabriques d'Ebauches** manufactures watch [[ebauche]] movements
 +This is the true birth of ETA, with the name and purpose firmly established. Over the following years, many other companies are absorbed into ASUAG/Ebauches SA and the cartel dictates which are allowed to produce each type of movement. Thanks to their research into [[automatic]] movements with [[Eterna]], ETA is one of the few companies within this group to be allowed to produce automatic movements in the 1950's. Along with [[A. Schild]] and [[Felsa]], ETA is considered a high-end movement maker and supplies many of the companies that exist even today.
 +The [[quartz crisis]] causes another contraction in the industry in the 1970's and, in [[1979]], A. Schild is merged into ETA to become the largest [[ebauche movement]] manufacturer in the world. Three years later, [[FHF]] (owner of [[Landeron]]) is brought into ETA along with other ebauche makers. Finally, in [[1983]], Ebauches SA is dissolved and most of the remaining companies, including [[Unitas]], [[Peseux]], and [[Valjoux]] (successor of [[Venus]]), join ETA.
 +===== ETA as part of the Swatch Group =====
 +[[ASUAG]] merged with rival [[SSIH]] in [[1983]], and the result was reorganized as [[SMH]] in [[1985]]. This was the predecessor to the modern [[Swatch Group]], the world's largest watch company.
 +ETA remained as the primary provider of individual movement parts, tools, kits and complete [[watch movement]]s within and outside the Swatch Group. The kits are still processed, refined and sometimes provided with additional features by some manufacturers. ETA is also the primary source for [[balance spring]]s, [[assortment]]s, and other critical components to the Swiss watch industry.
 +ETA launched a new sub-brand, **Valgranges** in [[2005]]. The name, derived from [[Valjoux]] and "Granges" or [[Grenchen]], reflects the nature of the products, a range of larger movements derived from the [[Valjoux 7750]].
 +In recent decades, management has wanted to restrict sales of ETA movements outside the Swatch Group. The explosion of new and re-born Swiss watch companies in the 2000's is built primarily on ETA movement production and expertise, and this impacts sales of Swatch Group companies. Additionally, it is unhealthy for the industry to have a single source for critical components. Over the years, Swatch Group and [[COMCO]] have worked to restrict sales of movements and ebauches and force outside companies to look for other suppliers.
 +As of 2016, this process is ongoing, with companies like [[Sellita]] and [[Soprod]] increasing production to supply the industry with complete movements and luxury makers increasingly producing their own parts and movements.
 +===== Current Products =====
 +ETA is well-known as a producer of many watch movements, but the following are particularly popular today 
 +  * 2800 family (based on ETA/[[Eterna]] technology)
 +    * [[ETA 2824-2]] - 25 jewel automatic movement
 +    * [[ETA 2836-2]] - 25 jewel automatic movement
 +  * 2900 family
 +    * [[ETA 2892-A2]] - 21 jewel automatic movement
 +  * [[Valjoux]] family (including [[Venus]] technology)
 +    * [[ETA 7750]] (formerly [[Valjoux 7750]] - 25 jewel automatic chronograph movement
 +  * [[Unitas]] family
 +    * [[ETA 6597]]
 +  * [[Peseux]] family
 +    * [[ETA 7001]]
 +For more information, please see [[ETA calibres]]
 +===== See Also =====
 +  * [[Eterna]], predecessor of ETA
 +  * [[Ebauches SA]], which ETA inherited
 +  * [[ASUAG]], predecessor of Swatch Group
 +  * [[Swatch Group]], owner of ETA today
 +===== Literature =====
 +  *Das große Uhren-ABC, Band 1, Firmen, Geschichte, Uhrwerke, Uhren-Lexikon, Technik; Authors Gerhard Claußen , Karl-Hermann Ströde; ISBN 3980367509
 +  *Das große Uhren-ABC, Band 2, Firmen, Uhrwerke, Technik; Authors Gerhard Seelen, Karl-Hermann Ströde, Edda Gräfje; ISBN 3980367517
 +===== Weblinks =====
 +  *[[|ETA SA]], official website
 +  *[[|ETA Winding]]
 +  *[[|A Brief History of ETA: THE Swiss Watch Movement Maker]]
 +{{tag>Movement_manufacturers Movement_manufacturers_Switzerland Abbreviations Swatch_Group Grenchen Villeret Fontainemelon ETA Ebauches_SA ASUAG}}
eta.txt · Last modified: 03.07.2022 15:33 by

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